MAPS

Friedrich Hegel in his "Lectures on the Philosophy of History" (1822) :

Africa is, so to speak, made of three different continents which are totally separated from one another and have no reciprocal communication. One is to the south of the Sahara desert (…) The other, located to the north of the desert is, as it were, European Africa, a coastal country. (...) There are Morocco, Fas (not Fez), Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli. We can say that this whole zone does not belong to Africa, but to Spain, with which it forms a basin. (...) The third is the Nile basin, the only valley in Africa, which belongs to Asia.

MAGHREB IN THE EUROPEAN PROJECT

 

A FOURTH SILK ROAD IN ATLANTIC AFRICA